wilda maysari

Genres of Written Language, Types of Writing Performances, Macroskills & Microskills

Genres of Written Language

1. Academic writing

  • papers and general subject reports.
  • essays, compositions.
  • academically focused journals
  • short-answer
  • test responses technical reports

            (e.g., lab reports)

  • theses, dissertations

2. Job-related writing

  • Messages (e.g., phone messages)
  • Letters/Emails memos (e.g., interoffice)
  • reports (e.g., job evaluations, project reports)
  • schedules, labels, signs
  • advertisements, announcements
  • manuals

3. Personal writing

  • letters, emails, greeting cards, invitations
  • messages, notes
  • calendar entries, shopping lists, reminders
  • financial documents (e.g., checks, tax
  • forms, loan applications) forms, questionnaires, medical reports, immigration documents
  • diaries, personal journals
  • fiction (e.g., short stories, poetry)

Types of Writing Performances

  • Imitative
  • Intensive (controlled)
  • Responsive
  • Extensive

Micro skills

  • Produce graphemes and orthographic patterns of English.
  • Produce writing at an efficient rate of speed to suit the purpose.
  • Produce an acceptable core of words and use appropriate word order patterns.
  • Use acceptable grammatical systems (e.g., tense, agreement, pluralization), patterns, and rules.
  • Express a particular meaning in different grammatical forms.
  • Use cohesive devices in written discourse.


Macro skills

  • Use the rhetorical forms and conventions of written discourse.
  • Appropriately accomplish the communicative functions of written texts according to form and purpose.
  • Convey links and connections between events, and communicate such relations as main idea, supporting idea, new information, given information, generalization, and exemplification.
  • Distinguish between literal and implied meanings when writing.
  • Correctly convey culturally specific references in the context of the written text.
  • Develop and use a battery of writing strategies, such as accurately assessing the audience’s interpretation, using prewriting devices, writing with fluency in the first drafts, using paraphrases and synonyms, soliciting peer and instructor feedback, and using feedback for revising and editing



  • There are four types in Types of Writing Performances namely Imitative, Intensive (controlled), Responsive, and Extensive.



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