NAME : LAILAD NAZAH
JURUSAN / PRODI : TARBIYAH / PBI
SEM / UNIT : VI/ 4
SUBJECT :TEACHING CONVERSATION
WORDS : 832 words
Research on teaching conversational skills (McCarthy & O’Keefe, 2004, Tarone, 2005) historically describes two major approaches for teaching conversation. The first is an indirect approach in which learners are more or less set loose to engage in interaction. The second is a direct approach that ‘involves planning a conversation program around the specific microskills, strategies and processes that are involved in fluent conversation” ( Richards, 1990,pp. 76-77).
Conversation is excellent examples of the social and interactive nature of communication. ”Conversation are cooperative ventures” (Hatch & Long, 1980,p.40), and importance of conversation in second language acquisition will be general, since specific languages differ, as aptly noted in a recent study. In the life, the children learn the first and essential rule of conversations: Attention getting conversation within each language both verbal and nonverbal need to be carefully assimilated by learners. Topic nomination which involve both verbal and nonverbal cues, are highly contextually constrained. Topic development use conversation of turn taking to accomplish various functions of language. Topic clarification manifests itself in various forms of heuristic functions. Repair, topic shifting and avoidance be effected through both verbal and nonverbal signals, interruptions, a getting form of attention, typical feature of all conversation. Topic termination is an art that even native speakers of language have difficulty in mastering at time. And learning conversation is a small event such as players asking questions or receiving advice during play. Conversation is not the exchange of knowledge, but the process of becoming informed about each other ‘information’ (what is described as the “coordination
of coordinations”) (Scott, 2001)
Richards offered the following list of features of conversation that can receive specific focus in classroom instruction:
How to use conversation for both transactional and interactional purposes
How to produce both short and long turns conversation
Strategies for managing turn talking in conversation, including talking a turn holding a turn, and relinquishing a turn
Strategies for opening and closing conversation
How to initiate and respond to talk on a board range of topic, and how to develop and maintain talk on these topics
How to use both a casual style of speaking and a neutral or more formal style
How to use conversation in different social setting and for different kinds of social encounters, such as on the telephone and informal or formal social gatherings
Strategies for repairing trouble spots in conversation, including communication breakdown and comprehension problem
How to maintain fluency in conversation through avoiding excessive pausing, breakdowns, and errors of grammar of pronunciation
How to produce talk in a conversation mode, using a conversational register and syntax
How to use conversational fillers and small talk
How to use conversational routines.
Learning conversations focus on the perspective, learning conversations can take many forms, but all share a common theme: the learner is at the heart of the process. Harri – Augstein and Thomas (1991) envisaged the learning conversation as a scaffold to help learners reflect constructively.
The purpose of the learning conversation is to:
keep the learner at the centre and to work with their agenda
challenge and motivate learners to improve
enable learners to explain their progress and how far this deepens their understanding of the topic, theory or concept
teachers to explain how far learner progress fits in with overall understanding of the topic, theory or concept
keep the learner actively engaged in analyzing learning information and using it to plan their own learning and development, for example, they are able to set targets, to reflect on feedback and to carry out self-assessment
enable the individual to become an expert learner, self-motivated and able to manage their own learning independently
Encourage the individual to become a reflective learner and to transfer skills.
Conversation Can Errors
- 1. Asking questions :
v Ask questions already know the answer to
v Ask same question over and over
v Ask an irrelevant or off-topic question (usually based on self-interests)
v Ask questions about own interest
v Ask questions to find out information (for own purposes, rather than to learn about other person)
- Telling stories
v Tell the never-ending story
v Provide only 1-2 sentences, and wait to be prompted to tell more
v Tell a story in a list format using simple sentences (the format is often uninteresting to the listener)
- Making Comment
v Use comments that are out of style
v Use same comment over and over (i.e., “Cool…cool…cool”)
v Use comments lacking the right personality, tone or facial expression
Conversation requires exactly the skills these students have difficulty with, such as:
• Quickly taking in and processing information
• Interpreting confusing social cues
• Understanding vocabulary
• Comprehending abstract language
H.Douglas Brown, Teaching by Principles, An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy,Trihd Edition, ( ,2007)page 332.
H. Douglas Brown, Principle of Language Learning and Teaching,Fitht Edition.
Bonnie A. Nardi, Stella Ly, and Justin Harris, Learning Conversations in World of Warcraft University of California, Irvine, forthcoming in Proc. HICSS 2007
 H.Douglas Brown, Teaching by Principles, An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy,Trihd Edition, ( ,2007)page 332.
 H. Douglas Brown, Principle of Language Learning and Teaching,Fitht Edition,( ,)page 228-229.
 Bonnie A. Nardi, Stella Ly, and Justin Harris, Learning Conversations in World of Warcraft University of California, Irvine, forthcoming in Proc. HICSS 2007. Hal 45