TEFL (Astia Lili Erminda)



Classroom management is all of the things that a teacher does to organize students, space, time, and materials so that instruction in content and learning can take place (Wong, 1991).[1]

A succession of practicalities for the language classroom is to grapple with what we call classroom management. By understanding what some of the variables are in classroom management, you can take some important steps to sharpening your skills as a language teacher. One of the simplest principles of classroom management centers on the physical environment for learning: the classroom itself. Consider four categories: Sight, sound, and comfort, seating arrangements, chalkboard use, and equipment.[2]

If you have any power to control the following, then it will be worth your time to do so: (1) The classroom is neat, clean, and orderly in appearance, (2) Chalkboards are erased, (3) Chairs are appropriately, (4) If the room has bulletin boards and you have the freedom to use them, can you occasionally take advantage of visuals, (5) The classroom is as free from external noises as possible (machinery outside, street noise, hallway voices, etc.), (6) Acoustics within your classroom are at least tolerable, and (7) Heating or cooling systems (if applicable) are operating.[3]

Another fundamental classroom management concern has to do with you and the messages you send through your voice and through your body language. One of the first requirements of good teaching is good voice projection. You do not have to have a loud, booming voice, but you need to be heard by all the students in the room. When you talk, project your voice so that the person sitting farthest away from you can hear you clearly. If you are directing comments to a work, all the rest of the students need to be able to hear that comment. As you speak, articulate clearly; remember, these students are learning English, and they need every advantage they can get. Your voice isn’t the only production mode available to you in the classroom. Nonverbal messages are very powerful. In language classes, especially, where students may not have all the skills they need to decipher verbal language, their attention is drawn to nonverbal communication. Here are some pointers: (1) let your body posture exhibit an air of confidence, (2) your face should reflect optimism, brightness, and warmth, (3) use facial and hand gestures to enhance meanings of words and sentences that might otherwise be unclear, (4) make frequent eye contact with all students in the class, (5) do not “bury yourself” in your notes and plans, (6) do not plant your feet firmly in one place for the whole hour, (7) move around the classroom, but not to distraction, (8) follow the conventional rules of proxemics (distance) and kinesthetics (touching) that apply for the culture(s) of your students, and (9) dress appropriately, considering the expectations of your students and the culture in which you are teaching.[4]

Improving the ability of teachers to effectively manage classroom behavior requires a systematic approach to teacher preparation and on ongoing professional development. There is no evidence to support the assumption that new teachers will just “pick up” classroom management skills given the experience and time. Although surveys indicate that experienced teachers have fewer concerns regarding classroom management, such surveys may be less an indication that teachers learn over time how to manage classrooms effectively and more a result of the fact that many teachers who did not learn classroom management skills simply have left the profession (Baker, 2005).[5]

There are eight strategies for classroom management is create an effective learning environment, establish classroom procedures, create a motivational environment, make every minute count, keep everyone engaged, teach life skills and good learning habits, be creative, and use project design and management techniques.[6]

Creating positive relationships with students can be done in minutes a day by simply creating one-to-one time with students before and after school, between classes, or during class (Larivee, 1999).

There are elements of teacher personality or leadership-understanding group processes, clarification of beliefs, and attitudes, as well as concepts and skills-that can be learned so that educators act more purposefully and attain higher degrees of success in classroom management (Savage, 1999).

With these fundamental understandings, teachers can begin to reflect on the ways their classroom management practices promote or obstruct equal access to learning. This is an ongoing, long-term, and often discomfiting process, in which cultural diversity becomes a lens through which teachers view the tasks of classroom management. These tasks include (a) creating a physical setting that supports academic and social goals, (b) establishing expectations for behavior, (c) communicating with students in culturally consistent ways, (d) developing a caring classroom environment, (e) working with families, and (f) using appropriate interventions to assist students with behavior problems. In the following sections, we examine each of these tasks from a culturally responsive perspective.
































Brown, H. D. (2007). Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. San Francisco State University: Pearson Longman.

Larrivee, B. (1999). Authentic Classroom Management: Creating a Community of Learners. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon

Oliver M. Regina & Reschly, Daniel J. Ph.D. (2007). Effective Classroom Management: Teacher Preparation and Professional Development. Washington: Vanderbilt University

Peace Corps Information Collection and Exchange. Classroom Management.

Savage, T. (1999). Teaching Self-Control Through Management and Discipline. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Weinstein Carol & Friends. (2003). Culturally Responsive Classroom Management: Awareness Into Action. College of Education: The Ohio University.

Wong, H., & Wong, J. (1991). The First Days of School. Sunnyvale, CA: Harry K. Wong Publications.



















Title                                : Classroom Management

Name                      : Astia Lili Erminda

Semester/Unit        : VI/4

NIM                        : 140900396

Number of Words  : 1019






















[1] Harry K. Wong & Rosemary T. Wong, The First Day of School, Sunnyvale, CA; Harry K. Wong Publications, 1991), p. 80.

[2] H. Douglas Brown, TEACHING by PRINCIPLES An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy (San Francisco State, 2007), p. 241.

[3] Ibid; p. 242.

[4] Ibid; p. 243-244.

[5] Regina M. Oliver & Daniel J. Reschly Ph. D, Effective Classroom Management: Teacher Preparation and Professional Development (Vanderbilt University, 2007), p. 1.

[6] Peace Corps Information Collection and Exchange, Classroom Management, p. 42-66.


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