Syntax (Astia Lili Erminda)

 

  1. 1.      Form Of Noun Phrase

Phrase consisting of one or more words and ends with a noun.

  1. N à George, lion, she ( terdiri dari noun saja ).
  2. Det + N à A pen, the purse.
  3. Det + Adj + N à A beautiful girl, a handsome boy.
  4. Gerund + N à Walking stick, drawing book.
  5. N + Gerund à Fish farming, gold mining.
  6. N + N à Mary’s book,Atlantic ocean.
  7. Det + Gerund à The climbing, the meaning.
  8. Qualitative Adjective + Noun à Good attitude, bad boy.
  9. Quantitative Adjective + Noun à Many people.
  1. 2.      Adjective Phrase

Which describes a noun.

  1. Adjective phrase modified by adverb phrase.

E.g :

–  I’m strongly tired from this traveling.

  1. Adjective phrase consist of and adjective followed by complement.

E.g :

–  He is satisfied at his problem.

  1. Adjective phrase can combine pre-modification by an adverb phrase and post-modification by a complement.

E.g :

– She is slowly diligent to finish her assignment.

  1. Adjective phrase modifies a noun or a pronoun.

E.g :

–  A lady was sad of being a widow.

  1. 3.      Adverb Phrase

An adverb phrase can modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb, and it can appear in a number of different positions in a sentence.

  1. Forms of Adverb Phrase
    1. Adverb phrase can be complement of the verb ‘be’.

E.g :

– They are really enthusiastic.

The unusually tall boy.

  1. Adverb phrase modifiers of verb.

E.g :

– She walks slowly.

– He ran rapidly.

  1. Adverb phrase modifiers of adjective.

E.g :

– He is strongly brave.

– She is really clever.

  1. Adverb phrase modifiers  of adverbs.

E.g :

– Intan walks quietly freely.

– They run very fast.

  1. Adverb phrase modify determines.

E.g :

– The sun rise normally every morning.

– The moon exist regularly every night.

  1. Adverb phrase can be modifies of noun phrase.

E.g :

–  That car is completely the good chair.

  1. Adverb phrase modifies of prepositional phrase.

E.g :

– The children always wake up in a regular basis.

  1. Function of Adverb Phrase

The five functions of adverb phrases are:

  1. Adjective phrase modifier
  2. Adverb phrase modifier
  3. Verb phrase modifier
  4. Adverbial
  5. Adjunct

The first grammatical function that adverbs and adverb phrases can perform is the adjective phrase modifier. Adjective phrase modifiers are defined as words and phrases that describe an adjective or adjective phrase.

E.g : – Your newborn baby daughter is very tiny.

         – Students who are clearly sick may not attend class.

The second grammatical function that adverbs and adverb phrases can perform is the adverb phrase modifier. Adverb phrase modifiers are defined as words and phrases that describe an adverb or adverb phrase.

E.g : – The music from next door is blaring extremely loudly.

         – My use of adverbs is almost always perfect.

The third grammatical function that adverbs and adverb phrases can perform is the verb phrase modifier. Verb phrase modifiers are defined as words and phrases that can describe a verb or verb phrase.

E.g : – My pets wake promptly at sunrise.

        – She fiercely fought against her attacker.

The fourth grammatical function that adverbs and adverb phrases can perform is the adverbial. Adverbials are defined as words, phrases, and clauses that modify an entire clause by providing information such as time, place, manner, condition, reason, or purpose.

E.g : – The woman waited in line patiently.

        – Stubbornly, the little girl refused to eat her vegetables at dinner.

The fifth grammatical function that adverbs and adverb phrases can perform is the adjunct. Adjuncts are defined as words and phrases that frame an entire clause.

E.g : – Surprisingly, the slacker aced all of the final exams.

        – Nevertheless, students must turn in all assignments before the next class.

c. Kinds of Adverb

1. Adverb of time

These adverb answer the question ‘when’.

E.g : – She died two years ago.

         – I will come tomorrow.

2. Adverb of place

These adverb answer the question ‘where’.

E.g : – We have been living here for several years.

        – I decided to go there.

3. Adverb of frequency

These adverb answer the question ‘how often’.

E.g : – I often go there.

        – We visit them frequently.

4. Adverb of number

These adverb answer the question ‘in what order’.

E.g : – I have seen him only once.

       – Secondly, I can’t afford to buy it.

5. Adverb of manner

These adverb answer the question ‘in what manner’.

E.g : – The soldiers fought bravely.

        – I was terribly upset.

6. Adverb of degree or quantity

These adverb answer the question ‘how much’ or ‘in what degree’.

E.g : – She is very beautiful.

       – I am fully prepare.

7. Adverb of reason

These adverb answer the question ‘why’.

E.g : – He didn’t work hard, therefore, he failed.

         – Consequently he refused to come.

8. Adverb of affirmation or negation

Examples are : surely, yes, no, certainly.

E.g : – I will not come.

        – We will certainly help you.

Note that when used alone yes or no represents a whole sentence.

–          Will you come ? Yes. ( = Yes, I will come )

–          Have you finished the work ? No. ( = No, I haven’t finished the work )

  1. 4.      Verb Phrase

Phrase consisting of one or more words that function as a verb.

Form of verb phrase

  1. Verb à run, write.
  2. Aux + Verb à do write, is writing.
  3. Modal + Verb à shall go, must go, can run.
  4. Verb + Preposition à I look for the key, look at, keep on.
  1. a.      Noun Clause

A noun clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb, however, it cannot stand alone as a sentence.

  1. Form of Noun Clause
    1. Statement

E.g : – Tea grows in Java (this tea grows in Java is well known to all)

  1. Question
    1. Expecting yes or no answer.

E.g :

 – Will come to go there ?

– Have you finish ?

  1. Interrogative word question.

E.g :

– How to cook fried rice ?

  1. Request

E.g :

– I want to sing a song for me.

  1. Function of Noun Clause

The eight functions of noun clauses are:

  1. Subject
  2. Subject complement
  3. Direct object
  4. Object complement
  5. Indirect object
  6. Prepositional complement
  7. Adjective phrase complement
  8. Appositive

The first grammatical function that noun clauses can perform is the subject. Subjects are defined as words, phrases, and clauses that perform the action of or act upon the predicate.

–          Whoever ate my lunch is in big trouble.

–          How you will finish all your homework on time is beyond me.

The second grammatical function that noun clauses can perform is the subject complement. Subject complements are defined as words, phrases, and clauses that follow a copular verb and describe the subject.

–          The truth was that the moving company lost all your furniture.

–          My question is whether you will sue the company for losses.

The third grammatical function that noun clauses can perform is the direct object. Direct objects are defined as words, phrases, and clauses that follow and receive the action of a transitive verb.

–          The counselor has been wondering if she chose the right career.

–          Our dog eats whatever we put in his bowl.

The fourth grammatical function that noun clauses can perform is the object complement. Object complements are defined as words, phrases, and clauses that directly follow and describe the direct object.

–          Her grandfather considers his biggest mistake that he did not finish college.

–          I have often declared the problem that most students do not understand grammar.

The fifth grammatical function that noun clauses can perform is the indirect object. Indirect objects are defined as words, phrases, and clauses that follow a ditransitive verb and indicate to or for whom or what is action of the verb is performed.

–          The judge will give what you said some deliberation during her decision.

–          My parents gave that my brother wants his own car much thought.

The sixth grammatical function that noun clauses can perform is the prepositional complement. Prepositional complements are defined as words, phrases, and clauses that directly follow a preposition to complete the meaning of the prepositional phrase.

–          Some people believe in whatever organized religion tells them.

–          We have been waiting for whoever will pick us up from the party.

The seventh grammatical function that noun clauses can perform is the adjective phrase complement. Adjective phrase complements are defined as phrases and clauses that complete the meaning of an adjective phrase.

–          I am pleased that you are studying noun clauses.

–          My brother is angry that someone dented his new car.

The eighth grammatical function that noun clauses can perform is the appositive. Appositives are defined as words, phrases, and clauses that describe or explain another noun phrase.

–          That man, whoever is he, tried to steal some library books.

–          The problem, that the storm knocked out power, is affecting the entire town.

b.Adjective Clause

 

  1. Form of relative clause
    1. Who

It describes a subject.

I know the man

He visited her last night

I know the man who visited her last night.

  1. Whom

It describes a object.

The pretty woman is my teacher

You met her yesterday

The pretty woman whom you met yesterday is my teacher.

  1. Whose

It describes a possessive.

I know the pretty girl

Her mother works here

I know the pretty girl whose mother works here.

  1. Which

It describes a subject/object (things).

The cat is very fat

It is under the tree

The cat which is under tree very fat.

  1. That

It describes a subject/object (people/things).

The girl is very naughty

I dislike her

The girl that I dislike is very naughty.

Problems in Relative Clause

  1. 1.      Confusing of Who and Whom

       The relative pronouns who and whom are often confusing for us of since who often replaces whom in non-formal speaking and writing. Remember that in formal speaking and writing, who is for subjects and whom is for objects.

  1. 2.      Be careful with word order.

Word order is often a problem with adjective clauses if a sentence has other modifiers after the noun phrase that is being described.

E.g :

Tina is the girl who has brown eye who is standing beside Mira. (Incorrect)

Tina is the brown-eyed girl who is standing beside Mira. (Correct)

  1. 3.      Don’t use personal pronouns and relative pronouns to refer to the same word.

       Relative pronouns are used to make a connection to a noun phrase. Don’t connect to the main noun twice by using both personal pronouns and relative pronouns.

         E.g :

        Lili is the person who she was walking to me in the garden. (Wrong)

         Lili is the person who was walking to me in the garden. (Right)

  1. c.       Adverb Clause

An adverb clause is a clause that function as an adverb. In other words, it contains a subject  and a predicate, and it modifies a verb.

Kinds of adverb clause

  1. Adverb time clause

–          Her goldfish died when she was young.

  1. Adverb conditional clause

–          If they lose weight during an illness, they soon regain it afterwards.

 

  1. Adverb purpose clause

–          They had to take some of his land so that they could extend the churchyard.

  1. Adverb reason clause

–          I couldn’t feel anger against him because I liked him too much.

  1. Adverb result clause

–          My suitcase had become so damaged on the journey home that the lid would not stay closed.

  1. Adverb concessive clause

–          I used to read a lot although I don’t get much time for books now.

  1. Adverb place clause

–          He said he was happy where he was.

  1. Adverb clause of manner

–          I was never allowed to do things as I wanted to do them.

  1. Adverb clauses of exclamation

–          What horrible news! How fast she types! You lucky man!

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/dick/tta/phrases/phrases.htm

Schramper Azar, Betty. 2003, Fundamentals of English Grammar,New York: Longman.

Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adverbial_clause

Http://heather-marie-kosur.suite101.com/the-eight-functions-of-noun-clauses-in-english-a121013

Marcella, Frank. 1972, Modern English a Practical Reference Guide,New Jersey: prentice – hall, INC. Englewood cliffs.

 

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