Nailul muna – resume
I have now finished the second step. Notice that in this step I have moved closer and closer to the actual the text, focusing gradually on the significant details even to the point of a few phrase and words, such as ‘anguish’, ‘torment’ and ‘instinct’. You have to go into this sort of close reading in this step in order to give your ideas precision and gain the detailed evidence you will need for your essays. Do not worry about narrowing don’t you study in this way, because the short passage we focused on in this step were chosen as part of a crisis: in other words we deliberately chosen an especially revealing part of the text to discover points that are important throughout the work. This is why you can move on to step 3 confidently, and discover ho your detailed analysis of the crisis fits in with the rest of the text. You have found out a lot in step 2 because you have come to grips with the central complexities of the theme you are studying.
Relate the part you have studied to the text as a whole
In the first steps my study of wuthering heights has narrowed down from thinking about the whole story to analyzing a few words. Now the study became broad again, for in this step you look at the text as a whole. When you study literature you are expected to do something called ‘developing your ideas’. This mean using what you know to find out about what you do not know yet. Studying a text is not just a matter of collecting more and more facts: you ideas actually grow and develop as you pursue them through further areas of the text. You can do this by turning what you to a fuller understanding of the text, and in the course of this book I will be showing you how to work out the right questions to ask. Sometime you might feel that these question are too obvious, too much light common sense to be proper academic work. Literature is about ordinary life, however, and it is written for ordinary readers like you or me, so you must not underrate the value of common sense or ignore the obvious. Asking the obvious question to develop your ideas is a very important move forward . when you have found a theme and analysed how it is portrayed in a crisis, there are two clear question to ask about the rest of the text. First, are the points I have discovered in this crisis important in the rest of the text and, second, have I found out all there is to find about the theme or does it run much deeper and go further than I have discovered from just one crisis?
In my case, I have found two specific points about love as a theme of wutherring height : that love causes suffering and is a kind of mental torment; and that is an instinct which drives people to break down conventional barriers so they can be united with the person they love. In steps 3, look at other crises which are to do with your theme, and elsewhere in the text. This will answer the first question and confirm that what you have discovered is important in the text as a whole; it will also develop your ideas, because the theme gains breadth and power as it is revealed in different ways in different contexts.
In step 3, then, used the same method again. Choose other crises about love from the text, and reread them. This time, however, you have, an advantage because you bring with you your understanding of the first crisis you looked at. You do not need to start again with just the idea of love: now you can look at love in term of suffering and have love throws down all barriers and restraints.
In whuterring heighs the most important lover are the elder Catherine and heathcliff. Here are passage from two of the crises of their love: the first comes from a scene when they quarrel about heathciff’s plan to marry issabella; the second describes catherine’s illness and delirium after she has quarreled with both heathcliff and her husband Edgar. Catherine and heathcliff quarrel because he is planning to marry issabella as part of his revenge, and Catherine knows he does not love issabella. When I reread this quarrel, I found this speech from heatcliff describing the torture and pain of their love.:
‘ I seek no revenge on you’, replied heathcliff less vehemently. ‘That’s not the plan. The tyrant grinds down his slaves and they don’t turn against him; they crush those beneath them. You are welcome to torture me to death for you amusement, only allow me to amuse my self a little in the same style, and refrain for insult as much as you are able. Having leveled my palace, don’t erext a hovel and complacently admire your own charity in giving that for a home. If imagined you really wished me to marry issabella, I’d cut my throat !’
This speech show that the idea of lovers torturing each other is again very strong in the novel: love here is portrayed in term of anguish, torment and suffering, so I know that the first point I notice about Hareton is important part of the pattern of the text. Heathcliff sees Catherine as a ‘tyrant’ who ‘grinds’ him downmaking him a ‘slave’. At the same time we see that he heatcliff intents to hurt her, by making her jealous of issabella. He says he would kill himself if he thought he could not make Catherine suffer. Notice that his passage conveys a much stronger sense of suffering and torture than in the first crisis we look at : hareton slapped his love and threw books into the fire , but heatcliff says that love, with all its pain, is worth more to him than life; he would cut his throat if he did not have this tortuous relationship o live for.
After quarrelling with Edgar, Catherine locks herself in her room and stay there without eating for three days. When the servant nelli goes in she finds Catherine I a delirium. Rereading this episode , I found the following speech from Catherine, with not only shows how far she will go to be reunited with heatcliff, but also how much she demands of him in return. In her delirium Catherine talk to heatcliff , although he is not actually there:
‘It’s a rough journey , and a sad heart to ravel it; and we must pass by gimmerton kirk, to go that journey! We’ve braved its ghost often together, and dared each other to stand among the graves and ask them to come..but heatcliff, I dare you know, will you venture ? if you do, I’ll keep you. I’ll not lie there by myself : they may bury me twelve feet deep, and throw the church down over me, by I won’t rest till you are with me. I never will! ‘
In this speech Catherine dare heatcliff to die for her so they can lie at last in their grave the churchyard, once more stressing the idea that love breaks down all restraints and make extra ordinary demands.
The two crises I have looked at in step 3 reveal the same two points love that I discovered from the quarrel I originally analyzed in step 2, and importance the these ideas and theme of love in the text as a whole is confirmed. in addition, these extracts have strengthened and added to what I know. Catrherine throw aside conventional polite behavior when she kissed hareton because apologize were not enough. The same idea of going to extraordinary length comes up in the elder catherine’s demand that heatcliff should die for her, but this time the sacrifice it life itself. So I can develop what I can say about love: it not only demands more than is expected, but there is no limit to what love will demand_ even death. Indeed, love is now shown to be more important than death or life to both Catherine and heatcliff.
Notice that the idea I held at the beginning of step 3 have been confirmed strengthened. Step 3 has done more than merely and unified understanding of the theme. I looked at short passages and found complex elements, but this has helped me, now, to gain a large understanding of the theme as it is presented in the whole wide sweep of the text: love is shown as force which is irresistible, more powerful than life or death. The two points I found_that love contains extreme desire- can now be understood as part of the single big subject, the overwhelming power of love in wutherring height.
This third step, then, confirms the significance of the theme and what have found aut about it, but also adds to your ideas, enabling you to develop them further and bringing you to a sense of the overall forceful presentation of the theme in the whole text. The method of analysis I have describe here has begun to convey a sense of what the novel is about, and I can appreciate the depth and scope of ideas about love which are shown in the lives and experience of Bronte’s characters. The same method can be applied to all your text : it will help you to look at any text in the structured and fruitful way. In order to further illustrate this I now want to turn from a long, complicated novel to a short poem.