Name : Nailul Muna
PBI, Unit 4
RELATION BETWEEN LINGUISTIC AND LANGUAGE TEACHING
Linguistic is the science of language, and language teaching is practice of language. The process of any foreign language teaching includes : selection, grading, and presentation of the major steps. Linguistics plays an important role in the whole process of teaching.
There are two parts to the process, first, the restriction of the language used to a particular dialect and register; and secondly the selection from within the register of the items that are to be taught according to criteria such as frequency of occurrence, teach ability and classroom needs. The whole process must be applied at all levels of language, so that unlike conventional vocabulary selection, which deals only with items labeled ‘words’ but in fact having no clear linguistic status, the inventory of teaching items is reached by considering phonology, grammar, lexis, context (semantics) and extra linguistic situation at every point in the process.
The process of arriving at an inventory of teaching items we have called limitation the process of putting these into the most exact order for practical teaching purposes is generally called grading. Grading is can divided into two categories: First these takes the list of teaching items and arranges it into blocks of the right size for the various years, terms, months, weeks, days and classes of the teaching course; while the second, deals with the problem of the sequence in which the items in the blocks are to be taught. It is useful to use a separate label to each of these sub-division of the total process of grading, and so we shall use the term ‘staging’ to refer to the division of the course into time segments, and sequencing to refer to the problem of deciding the order in which the items should be taught.
in fact linguistics has a dual contribution to make here, firstly and behind and throughout the whole task, linguistics provides the description of the language being taught and shows the teacher what the place of each component is in the sum total of what is being taught; secondly and specifically in this area of grading, linguistics reminds us that the items being subdivided into units of teaching time belong to four different skills (understanding speech, understanding comprehensibly, reading and writing). This remainder affects the process of staging in a number of important ways.
The next stage in the process is one which we call presentation. This is chiefly a matter of practical class room teaching and corresponds closely to what is meant by methodology meant Methodology combined with applied linguistic or linguistic is more effective than methodology without linguistic or linguistic without methodology.
Then if we look the teaching as some process, so inside was obtained by us two process kinds that is : first, the process of the surrender of the language that in taught to the language student. Second, the process of acceptance of the language that in taught by the language student. In the story of the lesson language, process above was the special lesson in the development of end this science. The process that handed over the language to the language student was the subject of the problem of language science ( language teaching ) . The second process that above the location in the language that in taught but also understood the student against that in the studied. Understanding that could happen it this language has in depicted in a true, and manner the scientist picture of the language was competence linguistic to raise it. From the aspect of scientific could be seen by us relation in the process of language teaching. There are any three problems of the process of language teaching that must in judgment :
– Language description will be teaching
– Language teaching to learner language
– Language learning to learner language.
According Bloomfield, the language teacher should knew politely that would in could teach as well as speak in this language. Then the language teacher must have knowledge that was good about the elements language whatever that must in taught.
Language is an inherently complex system. It presents some contradictions and oppositions. Both linguistics and language teaching must consider these contradictions; otherwise they cannot provide a satisfactory solution to the problems of language.
Since language is complex by nature, what linguistics has to do is to identify the elements or aspects in order to analyze it. For example, when we talk about a language we try to analyze it from four aspects: sound system, grammatical system, lexical system and discourse system. We may ask which aspect does our language teaching practice or teaching theory include or exclude. Theoretically speaking, all these four aspects should be involved in our teaching theory, because they constitute a whole picture of language. When we analyze each aspect, we will use linguistic theory to describe it,
that means we have to consider how does it work linguistically; what does it mean semantically and how is it used socio linguistically. Only when a language is analyzed systematically can it be learnt practically. However, language teachers wish to teach language as a whole, that means language should be regarded as a synthesis in our teaching practice. So a satisfactory language teaching theory should consider the language both as isolated features and as a synthesis.
There is another opposition in language, that is, language is both rule-governed and creative. It involves order and regularity, but it also provides opportunity to be creative. Upon this fact, the language teaching practice or teaching theory as well as the linguistic theory must take into account the regularities and the possibility of making use of the regularities in varied ways. In our teaching practice, we should teach the students the grammar or the rules of a language; while on the other hand, we may let the students use language innovatively based on these rules. In my opinion, the teaching of the rules should be put at the highest position, because without a solid foundation of the English language it is hard to imagine how students will effectively communicate at high levels. Because of the intricacies a language possesses, we cannot ask a language teaching theory to cover all the aspects of a language. Since it is impossible for a theory of language to do justices to the whole of a language, all language teaching theories have to sacrifice some aspects of language in order to highlight others. Though linguistics cannot present us a definite interpretation of language, it can help us to think critically and constructively about language, which makes possible the design of the most feasible and practical language teaching pedagogy.
The dual relationship between linguistics and language teaching is important for language pedagogy. The continuing developments in linguistic theory and in language teaching theory as well as the constant changes in the language it self demand the permanent study of language and the relations between linguistic theory and language teaching or language pedagogy.