CCU (widya nanda)

Operations, Acts, Scenarios



Operations involve manipulation of cultural products by individual members of the culture. For the most part, the interaction is between a person and the product, and often does not require language. Operations can be conducted apart from scenario, as solitary practices. Operations also include avocations or pastime: fishing, hunting, gardening, photography, painting and the like.



These action chains consist of ritualized communicative practices involving other people. Language-verbal and nonverbal-is essential. Acts are usually brief utterances and responses that consist of established language expressions and accompanying nonverbal language, although they can also be entirely nonverbal.



Scenarios are extended communicative practices that involve a series of interactions, including operations and acts. They are scenario in that they follow an expected sequence of practices within particular settings and social circumstances.

There are five types of scenarios:


  1. 1.      Time-based scenario

Practices are organized in time. By arranging practices according to time-hours, mornings, afternoons, evenings, days, weekends, months, years or other chronological measurements. As with all practices, these scenarios often take the form of routines­- sets of predictable and expected practices that are consistently repeated. Examples include scenarios related to agriculture-planting, weeding, etc.

The important distinctions is that time is the controlling element in the scenarios. That is to say, the procedures in the scenarios depend on changes in time.


  1. 2.      Events-based Scenarios

Practices are also organized through events. These events are usually restricted in time, with clear beginning and ends. Events based scenario, if they involve several participants and many cultural communities, necessarily involve different perceptions of what occurs.


  1. 3.      Group-based Scenarios

Practices are organized through social groups or communities. Members of particular groups have identifiable set of practices that they enact as part of the activities and purposes of their group.


  1. 4.      Institution-based Scenarios

Practices are organized through social institution. Members need to enact certain scenarios to participate in these formal, organized systems of the culture. These include systems and institutions of education, politics, economics, religion, as well as health and welfare and communications.


  1. 5.      Life-cycle based scenarios

Practices are organized through perceptions of the life span, from birth to death-and even beyond. There are scenarios associated with birth, infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, old age, and death. Such scenarios take their definition from the various life stages, as defined by the culture. Many cultures mark passages from one stage to another with certain scenarios.

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