syntax (widya nanda)


1. Noun phrase      

  1. form of noun phrase
    1. Noun

Example          : Iqbal is a boy

    1. Determine + Noun

Example          : a book is my own.

    1. Determine + Adjective + Noun

Example          : A beautiful girl

    1. Gerund + Noun

Example          : I draw on the drawing table.

    1. Noun + Gerund

Example          : I buy a gold mining

    1. Noun + Noun

Example           : Red book is Nanda’s book

    1. Determine + Gerund

Example          : the meaning

    1. Noun + Prepositional phrase

Example          : in the hospital

    1. Adjective + Noun + Prepositional

Example          : a handsome boy in my house

2. Adjective Phrase

Explain about Noun

Examples          : a. He bought a table made of wood.

b. I saw an elephant with white skin.

3. Adverb Phrase

Menerangkan tentang Verb, Sesama Verb dan Adjective.

A. Kinds of adverb of Phrase

    1. Adverb of Time

e.g                   : I arrived yesterday

    1. Adverb of Place

e.g                   : My father is in the office

    1. Adverb of Manner

e.g                   : The driver drove the car in a full speed

    1. Adverb of Degree

e.g                   : She is very quickly

    1. Adverb of Number

e.g                   :  I take a bath twice a day

    1. Interrogative Adverb

e.g                   :  what do you do

    1. Relative Adverb

e.g                   :  I see you when you see me

    1. Comparative forms of Adverbs

e.g                   :

4. Verb Phrase

    A. Form of Verb Phrase

There are 7 form of Phrase

1.   Invinitive Phrase

Start with an infinitive which is followed by any objects and / or modifiers.

Example          : I must study to pass my winter exams with good marks.   

Object             : My winter exams.

Modifier          : With good marks

Infinite Phrase : to pass my winter exams with good marks.

      2.   Participial Phrases

Consist of either a pas or a present participle and any objects and / or modifiers.

Example         : The dog keenly hunting the dugs must be a thoroughbred.

Participal         : Hunting

Object             : The dugs.

Modifier          : Keenly.

Participal Phrase: keenly hunting the ducks.

     3.    Gerund Phrase

Consist of a gerund and any objects and / or modifiers.

Example          : I enjoy riding my bike in the evening.

Direct object   : My bike

Modifiers        : In the evening.

4.   Verb

Example          : I write a letter on the paper to my boyfriend.

      5.  Aux + Verb

Example          : I do write a letter until morning.

6.      Verb + Preposition   

Example          : She looks at you



1. Noun Clause

    A. Function of Noun Clause

    1. Noun Clause as Subject

e.g                   : a. What you said made the crowd angry.

b. For you not finish school now would be foolish.

    1. Noun Clause as Subject Complement

e.g                   : a. The thief will be whoever has blue ink on their hands.

b. That noise is the dog crying in his crate.


    1. Direct Object

e.g                   : a. I would hate for you to get sick.

b. My son eats whatever we put on his plate.

    1. Object Complement

e.g                   : a. You may call my husband whatever you wish.

    1. Indirect object

e.g                   : a. my classmate gave me singing the school song a gold star.

b. The family court judge will give what the children want some consideration.

    1. Prepositional Complement

e.g                   : a. His wife listened to him singing in the shower.

b. The students are thinking about what they just learned in class.

    1. Adjective phrase Complement

e.g                   : a. My supervisor is worried that the roof will leak again.

b. I am sad that my husband is ill.

    1. Noun phrase

e.g                   : a. The claim that the earth is flat was once widely believed.

b. Our hope that peace will be archieved is possible.

  1. Form of noun clause

1.      Person (first, second, third)

e.g                     : a. She is my friend

2.      Number (singular and plural)

e.g                     : a. singular noun = a pen, a table

b. plural noun = pens, tables

3.      Tense (present and past)

e.g                     : a. mother cooks rice every morning (present)

b. bought this car in Jakarta (past)

2. Adjective Clause

  1. Form of Relative Clause
    1. Why

Explain about Reason

e.g                   : The reason why he comes late is very confused.

    1. When

Explain about time

e.g                   : I can’t predict when the train arrived.

    1. Where

Explain about place

e.g                   : The house where I lived is very far.

    1. How

Explain about way or manner

e.g                   : He teaches me how to make a cake.

    1. Whose

e.g                   : The car you hit belongs to the man whose daughter is my classmate.

    1. Who

e.g                   : the girl who stands in front of the door is my friend.

    1. Which

e.g                   : The cat which white fur is mine


    1. That

Can be used to all antecedent.

e.g                   : The woman that works in the bakery is my neighbor.

  1. Function of Relative Clause
    1. Relative Clause as Adjective

e.g                   : The boy whose book I borrowed is very hungky.

    1. Relative Clause as Subject

e.g                   : The bird that is soaring in the sky is a seagull.

    1. Relative Clause as Direct Object

e.g                   : The book that you panned is really very good.

    1. Relative Clause as an Object of a Preposition

e.g                   : The woman of whom you spoke is my boss.

3. Adverb Clause

Kinds of Adverb Clause

1.   Adverb Clause of Place

e.g                   : a. I will go wherever you go.

b. Put the pen where you take it.     

2.      Adverb Clause of Time

e.g                   : a. After you finished the work, we went house.

b. She comes to my house when I take a bath.

3.      Adverb Clause of Reason or Cause

e.g                   : I did not come because I was sick.

4.  Adverb Clause of Supposition

e.g                   : a. Although the falls, He still comes to school.

b. Although he was sick, He came.

5.  Adverb Clause of Condition

e.g                   : If I study hard, I will be success.

6.  Adverb Clause of result or consequence

e.g                   :

 7.  Adverb Clause of Purpose

e.g                   :

 8.  Adverb Clause of Degree or Comparison

e.g                  :



Frank, Marcella: 1972. Modern English john/stories/story reader $ 23.

http://heather-marie-kosur.suite verbs and verb-phrase-a106135

Sulastri, Learning English  Grammar, Karya Gemilang Utama, Surabaya

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