PHRASE By T.M.Juanda

 

 

PHRASE

 

  1. I.                   Definition of phrase

 

Phrase is one or more words that have a function in the sentence

  1. II.                  Forms of Phrase

 

  1. Noun Phrase

Noun phrase is phrase which consists of one or more words are ended by a noun. Form of noun phrase divided by nine, there are:

 

v  Determiner-Noun

v  Adjective Phrase-Noun

v  Determiner-Adjective Phrase-Noun

v  Determiner-Adjective Phrase-Adjective Phrase-Noun

v  Determiner-Noun Phrase-Noun

v  Determiner-Adjective Phrase-Noun Phrase- noun

v  Determiner-Noun-Prepositional Phrase

v  Determiner-Noun-Prepositional Phrase-Verb Phrase

v  Determiner-Noun-Noun Clause

 

  1. B.      Adjective Phrase

 

Adjective phrase is phrase that have a function like adjectives used to describe nouns.

  1. Form of adjective phrase divided fourteen, there are:
  2. Function of adjective phrase divided nine, there are:

 

v  Adjective phrase head

v  Noun phrase modifier

v  Subject complement

v  Object complement

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  1. C.      Adverb Phrase

An adverb phrase (adverb phrase) is phrase that functions as an adverb.

Forms of adverb phrase divided seven, there are:

  1. Functions of adverb phrase divided five, there are:

Adverb phrase head

Example:  very

                    increasingly

                    however

                    quite well

 

v  Adjective phrase modifier

Example; Employees who are regularly absent will be disciplined.

 

v  Adverb phrase modifier

Example; you behaved very well today.

 

v  Verb phrase modifier

Example; do not eat while handling library materials.

 

v  Adverbial

Example; my mom answers the phone immediately when her children call.

 

v  Adjunct

Example; the baby likes milk as well.

 

 

  1. Kinds of adverb phrase divided nine, there are:

 

v  Adverb of manner

Adverb of manner tells us how something happens.

Example; He plays the flute beautifully. (after the object)

 

v  Adverb of place

Adverb of place tell us where something happens.

 

 

 

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Example: I looked every where

 

Adverb of time

Adverb of time tell us when an action happened, but also for how long, and how often.

 

ü  When: today, yesterday, later, now, last year

ü  For how long: all day, not long, for a while, since last year

ü  How often: sometimes, frequently, never, often, yearly

 

Adverb of Certainty

Common adverb of certainty:

Certainly, definitely, probably, undoubtedly, surely

Example:

He will probably remember tomorrow

 

Relative Adverb

Example:

That’s the restaurant where we met for the first time.

 

Comparative Adverb

In general, comparative and superlative forms of adverbs are the same as for adjectives:

 

ü  Add –er or – est to short Adverb

ü  With adverbs ending in – ly, use more for the comparative and most for the superlative:

 

v  Adverbs of Degree

Common adverbs of degree:

 

Almost, nearly, quite, just, too, enough, hardly, scarcely, completely, very, extremely.

 

Interrogative Adverb

 

These are:

 

Why, where, how, when

 

Examples:

 

ü  How are you ?

 

 

 

 

 

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Viewpoint and Commenting Adverb

 

Viewpoint

 

Some common viewpoint adverbs:

 

Honestly, seriously, confidentially, personally, surprisingly, ideally, economically,

officially, obviously, clearly, surely, undoubtedly.

 

Examples:

 

ü  Geographically, Britain is rather cut off from the rest of Europe.

 

Commenting

 

Some common commenting adverbs:

 

Definitely, certainly, obviously, simply.

 

Example:

 

ü  She is certainly the best person for the job.

 

 

 

  1. D.     Verb Phrase

 

Verb phrase is phrase which consist of a combination of the verb

(auxiliary verb) and verb from a certain tenses.

 

                                                          Modal (can, may, will, should, etc, followed by a base)

 

                            auxiliary                                               Perfect (forms of have, followed by-ed participle)

Verb         

Progressive (forms of be, followed by-ing participle)

Main verb

Passive (forms of be, followed by-ed participle)

                                               

                                                                support auxiliary (forms of do, followed by a base form

 

 

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forms of verb phrase divided seven, there are:

  1. Verb
  2. Auxiliary + verb
  3. Modal + verb
  4. Verb + preposition
  5. Verb + noun
  6. Verb + noun + adjective
  7. Verb + determiner + noun

CLAUSE

        I.            Definition of Clause

Clause is a group of words that have a subject and predicate.

 

      II.            Noun clause

Noun clause is a clause that is used as substitute for function as a noun or a noun (noun).

  1. Form of Noun Clause

According to the original sentence types, noun clause can be classified into 4 types, namely:

  1. Statement (statement)
  2. Question (a question)
  3. Request (request)
  4. Exclamation

 

  1. Functions of Noun Clause
    1. That
    2. Who
    3. When
    4. How
    5. Which
    6. what

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  1.     III.            Adjective Clause

 

Kinds of Adverb Clause:

 

 

 

 

Kind of

clause

 

Common conjunctions

 

function

 

example

 

 

Time clause

 

When, before, after, since,

While, as, as long as,

Until, till, etc. (conjunctions that

Answer the question “when?”); hardly, scarcely, no sooner, etc.

These clauses are used to say when something happens by referring to a period of time or to another event.

 

 

Her goldfish died when she was young.

 

 

 

Conditional

clauses

 

 

 

If, unless

 

These clauses are used to talk about a possible situation and its consequences.

 

If they lose weight during an illness, they soon regain it afterwards.

 

 

Purpose

clauses

 

 

In order to, so that, in order

That

 

These clauses are used to indicate the purpose of an action.

 

They had to take some of his land so that they could extend the churchyard.

 

 

Reason

clauses

 

 

Because, since, as, given

 

These clauses are used to indicate the reason for something.

 

I couldn’t feel anger against him because I liked him too much.

 

                                 

 

 

 

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Result clauses

 

 

 

So..that

 

 

These clauses are used to indicate the result of something

 

My suitcase had become so damaged on the journey home that the lid would not stay closed.

 

 

 

Concessive

clause

 

 

 

Although, thought, while

 

These clauses are used to make two statements, one of which contrast with the other or makes it seem surprising.

 

 

I used to read a lot although I don’t get much time for books now.

 

 

Place clauses

Where, wherever, anywhere ,everywhere, etc.

(conjunctions that answer the answers the question “where?”)

 

These clauses are to talk about the location or position of something.

 

 

He said he was

Happy where he was.

 

 

 

Clauses of

manner

 

 

As, like, the way

 

These clauses are used to talk about someone’s behavior or the way something is done.

 

I was never allowed to do thing as I wanted to do them

 

 

Clauses of

exclamation

 

 

What a(an), how, such,so

Exclamations are used to express anger, fear, shock, surprise etc. they always take an exclamation mark (!).

 

What horrible news!

How fast she types!

You lucky man!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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